Guide language: Found an army 93 years to celebrate a the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, sina military affairs spreads out especially ” 93 things narrate journey ” series serialize, with the harships course that 93 stories on my army history tell about people army 93 years.
19 of the party 3 in plenary meeting is discussed passed ” the Central Committee of Communist Party of China about deepening the decision of party and national structural reorganization ” and ” deepen party and plan of national structural reorganization ” . Although the times is different, but the better troops and simpler administration that reviews Yan’an period today, had done this work to us, it is certain to still have draw lessons from a meaning. — complier
In November 1941, peaceful border area of pleasant of short for Shaanxi Province during 2 ginseng parliaments, mao Zedong a draft resolution whole on the notebook that copied oneself, important place still rises with red pen circle, and added a paragraph of remarks on a piece of writing: “This method is very good, just is pair of disease medicine of the mechanism principle that transforms us, bureaucratism, formalism. ” what Mao Zedong says this ” to disease medicine ” , it is better troops and simpler administration. On September 7, 1942, mao Zedong is in for Yan’an ” emancipatory daily ” also say in emancipatory editorial: “The policy of the better troops and simpler administration that the Party Central Committee puts forward, it is an all in all policy. It is an all in all policy..
“Our difficulty is really extremely great “
Mixed 1940 1941, each base area that fight day encounter all-time corporeal difficulty. What Mao Zedong says no less than: “We once were done wear without the garment almost, eat without oil, without paper, without dish, the soldier does not have footgear, the staff member was not built in the winter. Kuomintang is used stop hair funds and economic block to treat us, the purpose dies us tiredly, our difficulty is really extremely great. ” the area appears by the side of Shan Ganning as a result of,such difficulty basically is the following the reason of 3 respects causes.
The first, personnel of be released from production to take on other duty increases in great quantities. When the area held water by the side of Shan Ganning 1937, personnel of be released from production to take on other duty of party card army only 14 thousand person, 1938 also only 16 thousand person. After 1939, basically be to was mixed 1940 1941, kuomintang is started twice chafe in all instead, surround border area with a large number of forces, and wait for one’s chance is attacked in force. Below such circumstance, we are forced from front in succession recall is legionary, guard border area, bring about personnel of be released from production to take on other duty (basically be legionary) rise sharply since 1939. Personnel of border area be released from production to take on other duty reached 73 thousand person 1941. Personnel of be released from production to take on other duty jumps, border area government spending increases considerably subsequently.
The 2nd, acute of area finance income is decreased by the side of Shan Ganning. Area finance income basically relies on foreign aids by the side of Shan Ganning at that time. Democratic public figure of the contribution that foreign aids basically includes abroad overseas Chinese, home and those who fight day of organization is contributory, and the soldier’s pay and provisions that Kuomintang gives the Eight Route Army. Foreign aids has very large proportion in the finance income of border area. According to statistic, the proportion that foreign aids holds in finance income, was 1938 51.6% , was 1939 85.79% , was 1940 74.7% . But rise from October 1940, kuomintang stops the soldier’s pay and provisions that sent the Eight Route Army, at the same time subtense area executes mail, the policy of this kind of block of Kuomintang subtense area, cause the greater part discontinuity that at that time the environment leaves external assistance, border area finance is exceeding and difficult.
The 3rd, people burden is aggravating. Once set in the center of, personnel of be released from production to take on other duty of party card army cannot exceed 3% of population number, but had achieved actually at that time 5.4% , will naturally increase people’s burden so. It is with burden of agricultural tax paid in grain exemple, come from the leap of 50 thousand stone 1939 the 200 thousand stone 1941. On June 3, 1941, the area holds a head of a county by the side of Shan Ganning joint meeting discussion requisitions grain problem. Abrupt day rains heavily, thunder and bolt, yan Chuan county an acting head of a county of surname plum dies by be struck by lightning. In the meantime, an ass of a farmer also is died by thunder electrical shock. This farmer meets the person says: God is not goggle, do not beat dead how Mao Zedong. What the word of this farmer caused Mao Zedong is thoughtful. Mao Zedong ever said later: “When that year border area government attends a meeting, thunder, break down collapse plum the head of a county beat dead, someone says, alas, why didn’t Thunder God beat dead Mao Zedong? I was investigated one time, its reason has only, it is agricultural tax paid in grain too much, some common people are grouchy. Impose grain delivered to the state really in those days too much. Should want introspection to consider to study policy? Should! Should!!
How to overcome difficulty? One of method at that time are to launch the big production campaign that is a center with agriculture, another method executes better troops and simpler administration namely. 1941 11, between December, the area holds parliament of the 2nd ginseng by the side of Shan Ganning, what the 11 people such as Li Dingming put forward better troops and simpler administration is second reading. This second reading course joins parliamentary discussion to pass, carry out quickly. What Mao Zedong says no less than: “We must overcome this difficulty, one of our important measure are better troops and simpler administration. One of our important measure are better troops and simpler administration..
Better troops and simpler administration ” must be strict, complete, general “
After border area joins a parliament to end before long, on December 4, 1941, the Central Committee of Communist Party of China was given out ” indicate a letter to departmental to execute better troops and simpler administration ” , the requirement is cogent rectify a party, politics, army various origanization construction, cut gear, enrich company, strengthen grass-roots unit, improve efficiency, managing manpower material resources. The district government according to the Central Committee of Communist Party of China directive side Shan Ganning, had better troops and simpler administration 3 times in border area early or late, obtained very big effect.
In December 1941 the middle ten days of a month, district government indicates protocol reorganize plan according to center by the side of Shan Ganning, began first time better troops and simpler administration, end basically to April 1942. Cut down through cutting double toe or finger orgnaization more than 100 place, cut staff member thousands of, gains is very big. But because lack experience, also know inadequacy to reducing working value, rise on thought understanding not much, improve on working whole not apparent.
For this, on June 30, 1942, the 26th times government affairs conference discusses government of peaceful border area of pleasant of short for Shaanxi Province through ” system of government of Shan Ganning border area plan of the 2nd better troops and simpler administration ” , the 2nd times better troops and simpler administration begins. The focal point that cuts the job this is the working system that builds itself of border area government, upper body also cut a few staff, but enrich again took basic level organization, practical compact scope is not big. To September 1942, cut an end the 2nd times. Be in twice on compact foundation, the area prepares to made the 3rd times cut and make more sufficient preparation according to the directive central by the side of Shan Ganning.
In September 1942 the middle ten days of a month, the compact job before the section side Shan Ganning knits personnel to be opposite had serious examination. This inspection job is summary actually the first, the experience that cuts the job 2 times, discover the problem of the existence in the job, for the 3rd better troops and simpler administration the job makes thought preparation and constituent preparation. On this foundation, in September 1942 the last ten-day of a month, shan Ganning border area calls together divisional assistant director technically, the prefectural head of a county such as Yan’an, An Sai, Gan Quan, with etc cadre of one part county, area, countryside, hold brief politics informal discussion. After this informal discussion, everybody improved knowledge further to job of better troops and simpler administration from the thought.
Mao Zedong works to pay close attention to very much all the time to better troops and simpler administration. December 1942, he was made on conference of northwest bureau senior officer ” economic problem and finance problem ” famous report, mention better troops and simpler administration again among them. He says, after this the senior officer is met, “We are about to execute ‘ better troops and simpler administration ‘ . This better troops and simpler administration, must be strict, complete, general, is not perfunctory, of perfunctory, local. In this better troops and simpler administration, must achieve compact, unified, efficiency, managing and fight bureaucracy of 5 projects ” . Mao Zedong’s speech pointed out the past cuts working inadequacy already, also offerred hope to the compact job henceforth, improved the knowledge of the meaning that cadre of broad Party member works to better troops and simpler administration, purpose and requirement greatly.
“Have profit to people, we were used “
Hard pinch, jade Ru Yucheng. Yan’an period, the Chinese Communist passes better troops and simpler administration, overcame mechanism principle, bureaucratism, formalism, raised manufacturing living standard, spent the most difficult period, the victory of capturing War of Resistance Against Japan of this pair of Chinese Communists, and even the victory of capturing war of liberation, the in a sense says the effect with rose very main. Mao Zedong mentions better troops and simpler administration later ever said when this policy: “‘ better troops and simpler administration ‘ this one opinion, it is a party Mr Li Dingming puts forward alien person; He is carried well, have profit to people, we were used. We were used..
But this one process is not easy, the better troops and simpler administration of period of Chinese Communist Yan’an undertook 3 times, will main energy was in centrally on the main task at that time, just obtained enormous result finally. This tells us to do a thing to want to have a center, the job should have importance. If divide not clear primary and secondary, certain running around in circles. Also tell us at the same time, since of better troops and simpler administration a provisionality works, it is regular the job. Alleged provisionality works even if the job of better troops and simpler administration is finished inside proper time according to the plan. Alleged regular work even if want a spirit of better troops and simpler administration to be carried out in routine from beginning to end. After can appearing to had been cut otherwise, time passes and the situation has changed, resurgence, bring about compact achievement to lose almost to use up.